The Nuts and Bolts of Auto Law in Pennsylvania

AUTO ACCIDENT BASICS – WHO PAYS WHAT IN PENNSYLVANIA?

Navigating the insurance world after an auto accident can be very confusing. There are many questions revolving around who pays for injuries, medical bills and property damage. Understanding the nuts and bolts of auto accident law, ahead of time, can save considered time and effort.

BODILY INJURY LIABILITY

A. How Much?

Under Pennsylvania law, Pennsylvania car owners must carry at least $ 15,000 of bodily injury liability coverage to pay for personal injuries to another driver, in the event of an accident. Drivers can elect higher amounts.

B. Who Pays?

Bodily injury coverage is based on fault and is available to the other driver in an auto accident. For example, Driver A causes an accident with Driver B, causing serious personal injuries to Driver B. Driver A's auto policy includes the state minimum- $ 15,000 of bodily injury liability coverage. Driver B can make a claim under Driver A's auto policy, for personal injuries, up to the $ 15,000 limit. However, Driver B may be limited in what he can recover, depending on whether he selected Full Tort or Limited Tort in his own auto policy.

C. How it Works?

In some instances, an injured driver can make a claim for bodily injury liability coverage against the other driver's insurance company without having to file a lawsuit. However, if that insurance company fails to offer fair and reasonable compensation, the injured driver may have to file a lawsuit against the other driver.

PROPERTY DAMAGE

A. How Much?

Under Pennsylvania law, Pennsylvania car owners must carry at least $ 5,000 of property damage coverage to pay for property damage to another driver, in the event of an accident. Drivers can elect higher amounts.

B. Who Pays?

This type of coverage is frequently misunderstood. It is not available to an insured driver, under its own policy. Rather, it is available to the other driver in an accident, and is based upon fault. In our example, Driver A causes an accident with Driver B. Driver B's car is totaled. Driver A has $ 10,000 of property damage coverage. Driver B can make a claim under Driver A's auto policy for the fair market value of the total car, up to $ 10,000. In this same example, let's assume Driver A's auto was damaged. Driver A can not make a property damage claim under his own policy. Again, property damage coverage is only available to the other driver and is based on fault.

C. Collision and Comprehensive Coverage

Collision and comprehensive coverage are optional and cover different types of auto damage. Collision covers any damage caused by an auto accident less a deductible. Comprehensive coverage covers any non-accident damage, such as fire, theft, etc., less a deductible. A driver who has purchased these types of coverage can make a claim under their own auto policy. Using the same example, Driver A-who caused the accident, can make a claim for repair to his auto, if and only if he has collision coverage. If Driver A did not purchase collision coverage, he would be responsible for the repairs.

D. How it Works

If an innocent driver's auto is damaged in an accident caused by another driver, a property damage claim can be made directly to the other driver's auto insurance company. So long as the accident is clearly the other driver's fault, this is usually the easiest way to make a property damage claim. If the innocent driver has collision coverage under his own auto policy, then a property damage claim can be made with his own auto insurance company. However, the deductible would have been subtracted from the total amount recovered. Then, because the accident was the other driver's fault, the innocent driver's own auto insurance company should obtain the deductible from the other driver's auto insurance company. That deductible should eventually make its way back to the innocent driver.

Again, using our example, Driver A is at fault for an accident with Driver B. Driver B has a collision coverage with a standard $ 500 deductible. Driver B has a choice to make a claim with Driver A's insurance company or his own insurance company. If he makes the claim with his own insurance company, he would receive the fair market value of his total auto less the $ 500 deductible. His insurance company would then seek reimbursements from Driver A's auto insurance company for the fair market value and the deductible. At some point, Driver B should receive the $ 500 deductible back from his own insurance company-because the accident was Driver A's fault.

A property damage claim is usually made without having to resort to a lawsuit. Incidentals such as rental car costs and towing / storage, are immediately compensable if the innocent driver has purchased such coverage under his own policy. Otherwise, they will become out of pocket expenses in a consequent personal injury lawsuit against the other driver.

MEDICAL BENEFITS

A. How Much?

Under Pennsylvania law, Pennsylvania car owners must carry at least $ 5,000 of medical coverage to pay for medical bills incurred in an auto accident. Drivers can elect higher amounts up to $ 1,000,000.

B. Who Pays?

Many states including Pennsylvania are "No Fault" -meaning that regardless of which fault the accident was, a driver can make a medical benefits claim under their own auto insurance policy, up to the amount of medical benefit coverage purchased.

Using our example, Driver A causes an accident with Driver B. Both drivers have insurance policies with medical benefits coverage. Let's assume that Driver A has $ 10,000 of medical benefits coverage and Driver B has the state minimum- $ 5,000. If both drivers are injured and require medical treatment, they would both make a claim under their respective policies. In this example, Driver A could make a claim for medical benefits up to $ 10,000 and Driver B could make a claim for medical benefits up to $ 5,000.
Also, the medical benefits coverage amount is per person, per accident. In other words, if a father and his minor son are injured in an accident, and the father has an auto policy with $ 5,000 medical benefits coverage, then both can receive up to $ 5,000 of that coverage. If the father or son gets into a consequent accident, they would again be eligible for $ 5,000 of the same coverage.

C. How it Works

When making a claim for medical benefits, a driver may go to a doctor / provider of their choosing and should provide their auto policy claim number and auto insurance information. Under Pennsylvania law, once a driver provides this information to a medical provider, that medical provider is required to bill the auto insurance and can not bill the driver directly. Once the auto insurance company receives bills from the medical providers, the amounts of the bills will be reduced in accordance with Act 6-an Amendment to Pennsylvania motor vehicle law made in 1990. Act 6 limits the amount that medical providers can recover for accident related Medical bills. At some point, the amount of medical benefits under an auto policy may become exhausted and then the driver would use their own medical / health insurance to cover any remaining bills.

D. Priority of Coverage

When a person is injured in an accident, there can be more than one source of medical benefits. Under Pennsylvania law, there is an order of coverage, known as "priority of coverage". The first level is an auto policy in which the injured person is a "named insured" – that generally means an auto policy purchased by the injured person. The second level is an auto policy in which the injured person is "insured". This generally refers to an auto policy purchased by the injured person's spouse, parent or relative residing in the same household.

The third level applies when the injured person does not own an auto policy and is not covered as an insured under any auto policy. This third level is an auto policy covering the auto that the injured person was riding in when the accident occurred. Finally, the fourth level applies to injured persons who are pedestrians or bicyclists. This fourth level is any auto policy involved in the accident. In some situations, more than one policy may apply-and the first auto insurance policy to get billed will be liable up to the applicable medical benefits amount. That insurance company can then, seek reimbursements from the other insurance company. Also, if a person is injured in an auto accident during their employment, workers' compensation coverage is the primary source of medical benefits coverage.

F. Persons Who Do Not Qualify for Medical Benefits

Under Pennsylvania law, certain classes of drivers do not qualify for medical benefits, even though they have purchased auto policies. They include motorcycle drivers, snowmobile, motorized bike, and four wheeler operators. Also, the owner of a registered auto who fails to purchase auto insurance can not make a claim for medical benefits. For example, a person may own a registered car, but then fails to obtain insurance for it. If that person becomes injured while a passenger in a friend's car, they can not make a claim for medical benefits under the friend's auto policy. These classes of drivers must use their own medical / health insurance to pay for any medical bills incurred as a result of an accident.

For more information visit http://www.thepanjinjurylawyers.com/practice_areas/new-jersey-car-accident-attorney-pennsylvania-truck-wreck-lawyer.cfm

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Four Unconventional Ways to Land a $5K Loan With Bad Credit

A lot of folks got lifted high during the early part of the 21st Century. Times were good and promised to be so for a long time. Fearless about future debt, many consumers over-extended themselves. The economy fell flat thanks in part to this vast over-extension and the banking and mortgage industry that fed off of it.

As a result, loans came due with no cash flow to pay them. Foreclosures became normal. Credit card companies felt the pinch as members defaulted. Credit ratings suffered greatly. Presently, those folks have no recourse to any venues that could offer them any financial relief. A minimal $5,000 bad credit loan is unreachable.

People in this situation do have some options that they should consider while they try to rebuild their financial lives as well as their financial credibility. These options are perhaps not those that they would normally consider, but the times are not normal.

One: Familiar Loans

In one way this is the best scenario to get a much needed cash injection. In another, it could be the worst. Embarrassment is probably the biggest bar to approaching friends or family members for cash to get you through tough times. On the other hand, the terms for repayment can be quite flexible and interest rates can be low or nonexistent. Certainly, a loan such as this does not require a credit check. It would be wise and friendly to draw up a contract so each party knows what is expected.

Two: Salary Potentialities

Should a person in need of cash be to uncomfortable approaching family or friends, they might look to the workplace. Some progressive companies have opportunities for employees who have hit on hard times. A credit union may serve the company and it may be very happy to extend a loan at low interest rates and easy payback terms. If there is no credit union, sometimes an employer can be approached for a loan that can be deducted directly from future paychecks. Sometimes this sort of loan is available to promote loyalty and productivity.

Three: Non-Traditional Bad Credit Loans

Should the previous venues turn up dry, unsecured personal loans are available, either locally or via online lenders. Traditional lenders such as banks are not going to be forthcoming with any help for borrowers with poor credit. Online lenders do not consider credit scores and are usually eager to grant unsecured loans in the range of $500 to $10,000. The requirements are few; having steady employment and a bank account are often enough. The application process is easy and you can usually have cash in your account within 24 hours.

Four: Neighborhood Pawnshops

Do not cringe. For centuries shops such as this have been able to offer affordable loans to people in the community who find themselves a little shy of cash from time to time. Your loan will require security in the form of personal property offered as collateral that is equal to the worth of the loan. You will sign a document acknowledging your obligation. If you do not return to redeem the collateral, the shop is allowed to sell it to cover the loan.

No matter what sort of credit history you may have, you should be able to put your hands on some cash using the outlets described above. Just be sure you do not allow yourself to become a victim to any sort of fraud. Just be sure any money you do get is used responsibly and paid back according to the terms of any agreements.

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What Is the Difference Between an Heir and a Beneficiary?

The term ‘heir’ refers to a person who is entitled to property owned by a deceased family member. Individuals can bequeath property to heirs through their last will and testament or a trust. When a person dies without leaving a Will, their assets are given to rightful heirs according to state probate laws.

An heir can be a surviving spouse, minor or adult children, mother, father, or siblings. Heirs can also include direct lineage relatives such as aunts, uncles, and cousins. Individuals can bequeath property to whomever they desire. If they gift items to anyone outside the family, those individuals are referred to as beneficiaries. Although somewhat confusing, heirs can be beneficiaries, but beneficiaries are not always heirs.

The only way to ensure property is distributed according to your wishes is to execute a legal Will. When property is held in a trust, the Will is used to provide directives regarding distribution. Unless inheritance assets are placed into a trust, the estate must undergo the probate process.

Probate is required to settle decedent estates. Two types of probate exist – testate and intestate. Testate refers to estates which include a last Will, while intestate refers to estates where no Will exists. The probate process varies depending on the type. Intestate estates take longer to settle because additional procedures must be taken.

The last will and testament is also used to designate a probate personal representative. This person is responsible for all tasks required to settle the estate. This can include paying any outstanding debts owed by the decedent; filing a final tax return and paying outstanding taxes; obtaining appraisals for valuable property; securing personal property owned by the decedent; and distributing inheritance gifts left to heirs and beneficiaries.

The last will can also be used to disinherit an heir. When a person decides to leave a direct lineage relative out of their Will they must include a disinheritance clause which states the reason for exclusion. While this clause does not prevent heirs from contesting the Will, it can minimize the risk. If a disinheritance statement is not included, heirs can prolong the probate process by claiming the decedent was influenced by another person or not in their right mind when executing the Will.

Contesting a Will is a costly process that often bankrupts estates due to excessive legal fees. Those who have direct lineage relatives whom they do not want to bequeath gifts to should consult with a probate lawyer to ensure their Will is properly executed.

Engaging in estate planning can keep certain assets out of probate and allow quick distribution to heirs. Individuals with checking or savings accounts can designate beneficiaries to receive funds at death. This is referred to as payable on death (POD) beneficiaries. Account holders must fill out POD beneficiary forms to provide the names, addresses, date of birth, and social security number. Upon death, beneficiaries must provide photo ID and a copy of the decedent’s death certificate to claim funds.

Individuals with retirement accounts or financial portfolios can assign transfer on death (TOD) beneficiaries. Upon death, heirs can elect to transfer funds into a new account to avoid estate taxes or cash-out the account. It is best to consult with a tax attorney to discuss tax ramifications before accepting lump sum cash.

Executing a last will and testament is one of the best gifts you can leave loved ones. Wills should be updated when major events occur. These might include buying or selling real estate; starting or closing a business; or when a new heir is born or a designated heir dies.

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The Relationship Between Insurance and Finance

Insurance and finance are closely interwoven fields of business, not least because they both involve money. They also often both involve speculation and risk, and often where one goes, the other will follow. Take property investment for example, it involves a large amount of capital out lay, swiftly followed by insurance to protect the capital investment. It would be ridiculous to spend such a vast sum of money on a venture and not protect it against possible damage. It therefore makes sense to store information on these two subjects together, as the relationship is so logical.

Insurance is a form of risk management used to protect the insured against the risk of a loss. It is defined as the equitable transfer of the risk of a loss from one entity to another in exchange for a premium. There are different kinds of insurance for just about every conceivable event. The most common insurance is probably life insurance, which provides a monetary benefit to a decedent’s family or other designated beneficiary.

It can cover funeral or burial costs and can be paid out to the beneficiary in either a lump sum or as an annuity. Property insurance is one of the more necessary insurances as property is extremely expensive and if it is lost or damaged for some reason (fire, earthquake, flood) it can be very difficult to replace without adequate reimbursement. Travel insurance used to be seen as an unnecessary expense and is still viewed as such by many. Its importance is, however, being increasingly recognised by the public at large. It is cover taken by those who travel abroad and covers certain unforeseen events such as medical expenses, loss of personal belongings, travel delays etc. There are numerous other types of insurance, too many to mention, all vital if you want to protect something of particular importance to you or another.

In the world of finance there are many sub-categories, also too numerous to mention but a few will be included here. Forex, or the foreign exchange market wherever one currency is traded for another. It includes trading between banks, speculators, institutions, corporations, governments, and other financial markets. The average daily trade in the global forex is over US$ 3 trillion.

Tax consulting usually involves CPAs and tax lawyers in addressing any tax issues that you may have. There may also be Professional Strategic Tax Planners and Enrolled Agents, depending on the company that you hire. They will help you reduce your tax debt, eliminate tax penalties, an innocent spouse claim, tax liens, bank levies, and preparing unfilled tax returns, as well as any other tax resolution problem that you might have.

Property investment is usually when an investor buys property with an eye to generate profit and not to occupy it. It is an asset that has been purchased and held for future appreciation, income or portfolio purposes. In some instances an investment property does not have to be held for profit, as some landlords in New York lease office buildings to non-profit organisations for tax purposes. Homeowners consider their homes to be investments but they aren’t classified as investment properties. Perhaps if you’re buying your second or third home, it can be considered an investment property, especially if you plan to rent it out to help pay off the home loan.

Business networking is a marketing method, which is as old as business itself. It’s been around since ever since people learned to hold a glass of whiskey and schmooze. In fact, its probably been around a lot longer, Cro-Magnon man probably gathered around the newly discovered fire and showed each other their collection of animal teeth and traded them. Creating networks of crocodile teeth owners and sabre toothed tiger owners, who tried a take over bid against the sabre toothed leopard owners. Business networking is designed to create business opportunities through social networks. It helps if the people involved are of the same frame of mind.

These days a very handy way of business networking is via the Internet on the various social media available. But it must be said that very little can beat the intimacy and trust created by face-to-face relationships. Also, where would our businessmen be without their whiskeys and weekly schmooze?

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The Pros and Cons of Discount Travel Clubs

If you love to travel, but can not seam to do it as often as you would like, you should consider looking into a good travel club.

My wife LOVES to travel the world as I am sure many of you do, but it was always so expensive. I am here to tell you, it does not have to be.

This is how travel clubs work.

When you think about it owning a resort property is just like any other business. They need a steady flow of customers to be profitable. Their unique challenge is, they also need a consistent flow of customers preferably evenly spaced through the entire year other many issues start to become problems for them. To many customers all at once is lost business, probably to your competition. Not enough customers means empty rooms and lost business and revenue, which makes staffing as well as many other things VERY difficult.

The challenge is to keep a steady flow of customers, preferably even spaced all year long. But how do they do that?

One way resort owners have discovered to help with this is by affiliating with travel clubs to offer club members unreserved rooms at deep discounts. This helps keep a steady flow of customers all year long, and helps the owner keep a properly staffed business running.

Think about it from their perspective, would you rather have an empty room and NO income, and have a staff to pay with no customers to serve or income being produced? Or, to keep a good quality staff busy, have customers that may only be paying enough to cover your expenses with little or no profit?

It does not take long as a business owner to figure out that "when possible" you sell at full price, when necessary you take a discount and less profit, and when push comes to shove at least cover expenses to avoid taking a loss.

Even taking some loss is acceptable if it helps with staffing issues, inventory, food shelf life, advertising, budgeting, exposure and many other business issues. As long as it is not the norm, obviously.

Now, keep in mind, all travel clubs are NOT created equal.

The owner of the travel club is also doing business. He wants to provide his members with an attractive offer to build membership, but also wants to make money in HIS business, which IS the travel club. If the owner is more concerned about profit, than they are about giving value to their members, that club has a limited future.

The saying that just popped into my head was "It is better to have a little bit of something, than a whole lot of nothing."

The resort owners are constantly negotiating transactions (level of discount) with hundreds of travel club owners.

The owner of a particular travel club may have negotiated with the resort owners the best prices for his club, but if he is trying to make to much profit with his travel club, his members would not be getting the best deals!

It is very hard to negotiate regardless, without something the other party wants. Therefore, the more members you have in your club the easier it is to negotiate great deals. But getting lots of members is no easy task in itself.

The most successful travel club owner has figured out how to build a large following (with minimal cost) so they have the leverage to negotiate great deals other clubs can not, but because of their low overhead they can pass most of the savings along to Their members.

We all know that the BEST form of advertising is, word of mouth. As luck would have it, it is also the least expensive. (Free) So, if you (as a club owner) were to pay your current members (for new memberships) to advertise by word of mouth or however they choose, and generate members for you just by telling potential members about your club and the Huge savings they had received, you would have a growing membership with minimal expenses, therefore, you could pass dramatic savings on to your members which in turn would help generate more members more easily and get better discounts.

As I stated earlier, not all travel clubs are created equal, just as with any other business. You must do your research to find a club that offers a large inventory of locations, at deep discounts to its members, without charging too much for their membership. That travel club will continue to grow in size and value, and provide you with a lifetime of deeply discounted travel for minimal cost so you can travel the world and enjoy what the world has to offer.

Travel clubs can be a great opportunity to save your hard earned money. Just make sure you do your research and find the right one, otherwise you are not going to get the most value possible for your money.

Good luck, and I'll see you on the beaches of the world.

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Travel: Different Means of Travel!

Nowadays, there are many different means of travelling which include airplane or ships or trains or buses etc. you can choose your medium by keeping in view your interest, your priorities and of course your budget. Lets have some general over view of different means of travelling.

AIR: Air travel is the most recent means of moving from one place to another. Since its first usage, it has become so popular due to its many advantages that it is now the most used mean of travel by people for long routes. It is taken as an expensive choice although there are many air lines that are offering air flights quite cheaply but over all it is an expensive but most quick mean of moving from one place to another.

SEA: Sea is one of the oldest means of travelling. Ships were used for roaming even by Greeks and Egyptians. It remained the main source of travelling for quite a long time but after the invention of aero planes, it has somehow lost its place. Nowadays moving from one place to another by sea is rarely done and even when done it is mostly through large ships which are built for luxurious cruising for the more privileged people. Middle and lower class people can’t really enjoy in those huge and luxurious vessels.

TRAIN: Moving from one city to another by means of train is considered as the most reliable and affordable mean of travelling. Trains now for long have remained a top priority of people for travelling. Travelling by train has all the ingredients that it takes for a perfect travel as it is quick and reliable and cheap mean of travelling.

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Monopoly Game Rules

One game has always been a favorite with all people associated to all age groups and that is Monopoly. The game has its fans across borders and all around the world. Still, a lot of people are unaware of all the rules of this game. It is imperative to know and understand Monopoly Game Rules in order to be a champion while playing this game. Let us have a closer look at the Monopoly Game Rules:

  1. Build Hotels: Many people think that they only need to have four houses on every property in group color before they can actually start buying hotels. Well, it is not correct. Apart from this condition, optimum number of houses should be available in the bank as well. In absence of enough homes, one can not buy hotels.
  2. Going to Jail: If as a player one goes in the jail then even though he scores doubles, his turn will come to an end. Such a player will not get an opportunity to roll again.
  3. Income Tax: As a player, if a person ends up on income tax block after passing GO, his money worth $ 200 is included in his total worth. In this case a player gets to decide whether he wants to pay 10% of his total worth of $ 200.
  4. Fine amount in case of Utilities: A player is not required to roll again to determine the amount of fine on utilities. The numbers which come from the dice in first roll are considered for the fine amount.
  5. Together try to win: Mergers are not considered as part of the official Monopoly Game Rules, however, there are many players who add it in their personal rule book. In this situation, two players can decide to play together as partners. In such a situation, the assets of both the players can not be combined. Instead of this, one of the two players has to quit the game and then the second one continues playing.
  6. Quitting the Monopoly Game: At any point of time, if a player wants to quit the game then his assets are returned to the bank. The player can not gift his assets to any other player. Yes of course, a player can decide to sell off his property to some other player even gifting is not possible.
  7. No immunity against rent: At no point in the game a player can offer immunity to another player against rent.

Players often forget these simple rules and end up losing the game. There are many people who have twisted the rules of this game as per their convenience though the fun of playing Monopoly is more when played with the original rules of the game. Monopoly Game Rules were designed keeping in mind all the possibilities in this game and here one should follow them to play the game in the best and accurate manner. If one plays the game with all the rules then the chances of disagreements on various things can be avoided and game can be enjoyed thoroughly.

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Important Issues For Green Card Holders to Remember and Consider When Traveling

Clients who are Green Card holders (ie permanent residents) frequently ask me about issues that need to be aware of when traveling internationally, outside of the United States.

Here are some things to consider to minimize the potential for problems at the border. After a long intercontinental flight, nobody wants to find themselves in a position of being subjected to lengthy questioning by CBP officers at the airport. Particularly in situations where the Green Card holder has spent significant time (more than 6 months, typically) outside the US, there are potential pitfalls one needs to be aware of – or risk risk losing the highly-prized Green Card. CBP, interestingly enough, in its operations manual, has some good guidance on what immigration inspectors are to consider when inspecting Green Card residents seeking re-admission into the US

Admission, generally The CBP officer shall admit a resident alien returning to an unrelinquished domicile, if not otherwise inadmissible, upon presentation of an unexpired Green Card (I-551), a reentry permit, refugee travel document (indicating lawful permanent residence), or Temporary evidence of LPR status such as an Travel Statmp (or ADIT stamp).

A returning resident alien is not required to present a valid passport for reentry into the US, although most will have one, since a passport is often required for entry into a foreign country. When presented, the passport is normally annotated with "ARC", and the alien's "A" number should be written on the page with the admission stamp.

Admission after prolonged absences A Green Card holder, who has been outside the United States for more than one year (two, if presenting a reentry permit), may be seen by CBP to possibly have abandoned residence. Other indicators of possible abandonment of residence are:

(1) employment abroad,

(2) having immediate family members who are not permanent residents,

(3) arrival on a charter flight where most passengers are non-residents with return passage,

(4) lack of a fixed address in the US, Egypt

(5) frequent prolonged absences from the United States.

In questionable cases, it is appropriate for CBP to ask for other documentation to substantiate residence, such as driver's licenses and employer identification cards.

Green Card holder without Green Card? Lawful permanent residents (LPR) lacking evidence of alien registration because it has been left at home or in a safety deposit box, may obtain from CBP a visa waiver, with fee, or defer the inspection to another CBP office local to the Resident's home in The US

If the LPR claims the card has been lost or stolen, the POE may accept a Form I-90, Application to Replace Permanent Resident Card, with fee. These actions may be considered once the identity of the LPR has been confirmed, preferably by checking against the data contained in the CBP computer systems.

A LPR requesting a visa waiver must complete a Form I-193, Application for Waiver of Visa or Passport, if otherwise admissible. The applicant requesting the waiver is to review the information recorded on the printed form for accuracy and sign where indicated. If the waiver is approved, the LPR is to be given a copy of the Form I-193 and be acknowledged as a returning resident. If a waiver is denied, the applicant may be placed in removal proceedings before an immigration judge.

CBP officers can also use something called "deferred inspection". This is usually limited to a Green Card or Visa holder who:

O will be able to produce the requisite document within a few days; Egypt,

O claims to have lost or had the Form I-551 stolen, is unable to pay the Form I-90 fee at the time of initial inspection and has not been previously deferred for presentation of the Form I-551 document.

The LPR will be required to file a Form I-90 with US Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) within the next 30 days.

Conditional Residents A conditional resident is generally admissible to the US if applying before the second anniversary of admission for conditional residence. The conditional resident may also be admissible if he or she has a lettering letter (or "transport letter") from a US Consulate, has been stationed abroad under government orders, or is the spouse or child of a person stationed abroad under government orders. Otherwise, the applicant for admission as a conditional resident must have filed a joint petition or an application for waiver, Form I-751 (marriage-based cases) or Form I-829 (investment-based cases), in the US within the 90 Days before the second anniversary but not more than 6 months prior to the application for entry.

Once I-751 has been filed, the applicant will receive a receipt notice (I-797 Notice of Action) from USCIS, extending the conditional residency status for another year, allowing travel.

If none of those conditions exist, the inspector may defer the applicant to file Form I-751 or I-829 if there is a reason to believe the service will approve a petition or waiver. If the applicant is not admissible, CBP has authority to place him or her in removal proceedings.

Question of "Meaningful Departure" When examining a Green Card holder who has spent significant time abroad (usually more than six months), when there is a question as to whether the LPR may have abandoned his / her US residence, the CBP inspector has to Evaluate the situation and make a determination as to the LPR's intent and the nature and reason for the prolonged absence from the United States. Prior to 1997, if a lawful permanent resident was believed to be inadmissible, immigration inspectors had to first make a determination which his / her absence was "meaningfully interruptive" of permanent residence. Later revisions to immigration laws have formalized a 'test' for immigration inspectors to apply in this situation. Under this test, a lawful permanent resident is NOT considered to be seeking admission, unless the alien:

O has abandoned or relinquished that status;

O has been absent continuously for more than 180 days;

O has engaged in illegal activity after departing the US;

O has departed under legal process seeking removal;

O has committed certain criminal offsets;

O is attempting entry without inspection; Egypt

O has entered the US without authorization by an immigration officer.

If CBP believes an LPR may be inadmissible or no longer entailed to lawful permanent resident status, CBP should refer the alien for removal proceedings if a deferred inspection is not appropriate.

Special Rules for Dependents of US Service Members Spouses and children of US Armed Forces servicemembers, or civil employees of the US Government, are exempt from many normal requirements for returning residents. If a dependent is a temporary resident, and the period of conditional residence has expired, CBP should admit the person and advise to file Form I-751 within 90 days.

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Thermal Mugs: Plastic Vs Stainless Steel

The basic design of thermal mugs, whether they are plastic or stainless steel is the same – double wall insulation with a lid to seal the top. But even though stainless steel versions cost more than plastic versions, in the long run, they are the best deal for travelers. They can also be made of ceramic or glass, but those are generally designed for household use and not for travel due to the possibility of breakage.

The main benefits of a stainless steel mug are durability and better insulation. Steel is tough, and although plastic mugs can take a beating, a steel mug can last much longer. This is especially true when compared to the more brittle, hard plastic mugs that are sometimes used to display stylish designs and finishes. Although messy, dropping a steel mug of coffee will not generally cause any damage.

There are three basic types of insulation used; Air, foam or vacuum between double walls. Plastic versions usually use either air or foam. Both work acceptably, but air or foam is not as effective as vacuum insulation. More often than not, steel mugs use vacuum insulation which can keep beverages hot for a longer period of time. This can be quite important especially on long (and cold!) Morning commutes.

Beyond the two primary benefits, there are a few other benefits that stainless steel thermal mugs have when compared to plastic mugs. Plastic, being slightly softer, is more difficult to clean. You can use tough cleansers (making sure they're non-toxic!) On steel, but the same cleansers will scratch and damage plastic. For the same reason, plastic mugs tend to retain the flavors of the beverages that have been in them. This is not really a problem if you just drink regular generic coffee every day, but if you use the mug for different beverages, it can be.

When you look at all the factors, durability, ease of cleaning, effective insulation and better flavor, the stainless steel thermal mug is by far the best choice, even though it can be a bit more expensive. The only real benefits of plastic mugs are the lower price in the short run (which can be a big benefit if you lose your mug frequently!) And that they are slightly lighter than stainless steel mugs.

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Insurance As a Device For Handling Risk

The real nature of insurance is often confused. The word “insurance” is sometimes applied to a fund that is accumulated to meet uncertain losses. For example, a specialty shop dealing in seasonal goods must add to its price early in the season to build up a fund to cover the possibility of loss at the end of the season when the price must be reduced to clear the market. Similarly, life insurance quotes take into consideration the price the policy would cost after collecting premiums from other policyholders.

This method of meeting a risk is not insurance. It takes more than the mere accumulation of funds to meet uncertain losses to constitute insurance. A transfer of risk is sometimes spoken of as insurance. A store that sells television sets promises to service the set for one year free of charge and to replace the picture tube should the glories of television prove too much for its delicate wiring. The salesman may refer to this agreement as an “insurance policy.” It is true that it does represent a transfer of risk, but it is not insurance.

An adequate definition of insurance must include both the building-up of a fund or the transference of risk and a combination of a large number of separate, independent exposures to loss. Only then is there true insurance. Insurance may be defined as a social device for reducing risk by combining a sufficient number of exposure units to make the loss predictable.

The predictable loss is then shared proportionately by all those in the combination. Not only is uncertainty reduced, but losses are shared. These are the important essentials of insurance. One man who owns 10,000 small dwellings, widely scattered, is in almost the same position from the standpoint of insurance as an insurance company with 10,000 policyholders who each own a small dwelling.

The former case may be a subject for self-insurance, whereas the latter represents commercial insurance. From the point of view of the individual insured, insurance is a device that makes it possible for him to substitute a small, definite loss for a large but uncertain loss under an arrangement whereby the fortunate many who escape loss will help to compensate the unfortunate few who suffer loss.

The Law of Large Numbers

To repeat, insurance reduces risk. Paying a premium on a home owners insurance policy will reduce the chance that an individual will lose their home. At first glance, it may seem strange that a combination of individual risks would result in the reduction of risk. The principle that explains this phenomenon is called in mathematics the “law of large numbers.” It is sometimes loosely referred to as the “law of averages” or the “law of probability.” Actually, it is but one portion of the subject of probability. The latter is not a law at all but merely a branch of mathematics.

In the seventeenth century, European mathematicians were constructing crude mortality tables. From these investigations, they discovered that the percentage of males and females among each year’s births tended everywhere toward a certain constant if sufficient numbers of births were tabulated. In the nineteenth century, Simeon Denis Poisson gave to this principle the name “law of large numbers.”

This law is based on the regularity of the occurrence of events, so that what seems random occurrence in the individual happening simply seems so because of insufficient or incomplete knowledge of what is expected to occur. For all practical purposes the law of large numbers may be stated as follows:

The greater the number of exposures, the more nearly will the actual results obtained approach the probable result expected with an infinite number of exposures. This means that, if you flip a coin a sufficiently large number of times, the results of your trials will approach one-half heads and one-half tails, the theoretical probability if the coin is flipped an infinite number of times.

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